J.P. Morgan Markets 
Security Center



Software that automatically displays or downloads advertisements (e.g., in pop-up windows or banners), on a computer after the software is installed, often without the user’s knowledge or consent, or while the application is being used.

Anti-Virus/Anti-Spyware Software

Software that is designed to help protect a computer from viruses and other malicious software, including those that can destroy data, slow a computer’s performance, cause a crash, or allow spammers to send email from a user’s account. Effectiveness of anti-virus/anti-spyware software is directly related to the frequency of virus definition updates and scans.


An email attachment is a file that is sent with a message. An attachment can be a picture, a Word document, a movie, a sound file, an Excel document, or any other special file that requires another program to open it.

Files may contain computer viruses or other malware. Unless you are expecting an attachment from a trusted source, it is recommended you do not open the attachment. Viruses and worms can use address books to spread the virus and make it appear to be a valid email.


A web address stored in your browser for specified web sites that can be revisited easily without having to remember or retype the Internet address. You should always use browser bookmarks to launch sites versus clicking on links in emails.


A collection of computers (“net”) controlled by fraudsters to deliver malware and/or collect personal information.


Software that enables a user to interact with websites on the Internet. J.P. Morgan Markets supports the most widely used browser, Microsoft Internet Explorer.


A form of computer memory that allows a computer to quickly access stored information, such as web addresses recently typed into a browser. Pronounced “cash.”


A U.S. federal law that established standards for sending out promotional email.


A small text file that a website can place on a computer to allow a web browser to track or maintain certain information about the user.


A segment of Internet space, denoted by the function or type of information it includes; current domains include “.com” and “.net” for commercial sites, “.gov” for governmental sites, “.edu” for educational and “.org” for non-commercial organizations.


To copy files from one computer to another. Some websites require users download and install software to view and use the website.

Email Spoofing

Fraudulent email activity where the sender’s address and other parts of the email are altered to appear as though the email originated from a legitimate source.


The scrambling of data so that it can only be read by software set to decode the information. Encryption is used to secure the data and information communicated between websites and browsers.


Hardware or software that restricts access to computers or networks. Firewalls are used to help keep hackers from accessing computers and networks.


Someone who access computers without permission to perpetrate fraudulent activity.


Someone who access computers without permission.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

A programming language used to create documents on the Internet and control how web pages appear.

HTTP / HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

Standard language that computers connected to the World Wide Web use to communicate with each other. Web-sites with secured, encrypted communications will be seen as ‘HTTPS.’

Identity Theft

When a criminal obtains personal or organizational information with the intent to perpetrate fraud, resulting in financial loss.

IP (Internet Protocol) Address

A unique network address that computer systems use in order to identify and communicate with each other – in simple terms, a computer address.

Keystroke Logger

Hardware or software that records user’s keystrokes typed on a computer. Fraudsters may use this to capture user information.


A type of software program designed to access or control another user’s computer with the intent to perpetrate fraud. Malware can be installed onto a user’s computer without their knowledge.


A fraudulent and criminal attempt, typically carried out through email or instant messaging, to lure a user to fake websites where the user is asked to disclose confidential financial and personal information, like passwords or accounts. Pronounced “fishing.”

Social Engineering

Using not-computerized methods such as phone calls or face-to-face conversations to deceive people into providing personal information.


Unsolicited commercial email, often sent in bulk quantities.


Someone who sends unsolicited commercial email, often in bulk quantities.


Software that may be installed on a computer without the user’s consent to monitor use, send pop-up ads, redirect a computer to certain websites, or record keystrokes, which could lead to fraud.


Software disguised to perform a legitimate action, but actually performs a malicious function such as enabling unauthorized access to the affected computer.


Software that is attached to a file or program designed to spread via email from one computer to another, without the user’s knowledge. Most viruses are programmed to be extremely damaging.


A program that reproduces itself over a network, uses up computer’s resources or possibly shuts down a user’s system.